大尊 天空的 狮头人像 (D. Carlton Rossi copyright 2014-2021) Chinese
Extremely Honourable Celestial Sphinx (translation)
Ta4 Tsun1 (Wade-Giles) Tian1 Kong1 de Shi1 Tou2 Ren2 Xiang4
Dedicated to Sun Dawu (孙大午)
Royal 太尊 (Royal or royal ancestor)
Purple Enclosure of Great Bear Constellation
大尊 (Extremely Honorable) is located at the paw of the Sphinx
Notice that the head on the Honourable Celestial Sphinx is proportionate while the head on the current Giza Sphinx is not. This suggests that the current head of the Sphinx is a replacement of a much larger head.
Psi Ursae Majoris (Psi UMa, ψ Ursae Majoris, ψ UMa) is a star in the northern circumpolar constellation of Ursae Majoris. In Chinese astronomy, Psi Ursae Majoris is called Tien Tsan or Ta Tsun, "Extremely Honorable". The name was possibly derived from the word 太尊, pinyin: Tàizūn, meaning Royals, because this star is marking itself and stands alone in the Royals asterism, Purple Forbidden Enclosure.
Psi Ursae Majoris (Psi UMa, ψ Ursae Majoris, ψ UMa)
The I'mage called 大尊 天空的 狮头人像 is actually one of over forty poems in the Celestial Giza Series of D. Carlton Rossi. They are not derived from Giza, but rather Giza is derived from similar images in heaven as seen by the ancients.
There may be those who wonder why the I'mage called 大尊 天空的 狮头人像 which may be translated as “Extremely Honourable Celestial Sphinx” was dedicated in Chinese to Sun Dawu. First, it is a universal symbol and archetype which represents a direction. The Great Sphinx faces the Sun. Second, it features the ancient Pole Star called 11 Draconis which was used as a guide to the north. Bear in mind, that the I’mage could also have included the current polestar--Polaris; although, it would not be quite symmetrical at the base. Next, it is the only Celestial Sphinx which features a Chinese star called Ta Sun (known as “Extremely Honorable") in the Great Bear Constellation. I’mage also shares other stars of The Great Bear Constellation which was revered by the Bear Clan and other tribes which were united under Huangdi. Finally, the phrase Ta Sun sounds like Da Sun or Great Sun.
Courtesy Smokey Mountain Observatory
In fact, a straight line can be drawn from the Pole star through the left-side of The Cup of the Big Dipper then on to Ta Tsun and finally to the heart of the constellation Leo. In addition, a straight line can also be drawn from Polaris (current Pole Star) in the Little Dipper through the right-side of The Cup then closely to Ta Tsun and finally to Leo. The poet has redrawn this constellation in the form of a poem called Neo Leo which is a crystalline Sphinx.
It is conjectured by the poet that an image similar to 大尊 天空的 狮头人像 (based on the circumpolar stars) was used as a blueprint for The Great Sphinx. This sphinx was the earthly representation of the heavenly pattern. It derived its power through harmonization with its heavenly form. Other images similar to the I’mages (I’m ages) of the Elegant Celestial Giza series inspired earthly counterparts on the Giza Plateau derived from celestial sphinx, pyramids and sacred animals. Of course, one cannot deny that I’mages are subjective projections and representations of the poet; however, it is contended that they originate from stars reflecting and referencing Platonic forms.
While Banpo Pottery of Yangshao, Neolithic culture inspired the poet’s Banpo Poetry series it is seen that the patterns of the pottery may have been based, in part, on geometric and zoomorphic patterns perceived in the circumpolar stars—particularly the Dippers. It may be that these patterns can be interpreted as proto yin-yang symbols. If recollection is correct, Banpo Village (5600-6700 years ago) located east of Xian was set out on a grid of five directions with the fifth one in the center.
From Platonic forms, to reflections of them in the stars, to images similar to the I’mage of The Great Sphinx were derived The Great Sphinx at Giza. Yet, the I’mage of The Great Sphinx dedicated to The Great Noon (Sun Dawu) also represents a riddle since it is the earthly representation of five Celestial Sphinx. The Great Sphinx, too, was a composite of five animals; namely, lion, falcon, cobra, ram and man. It reminds the poet of the nature of Sun Dawu who seems to be a personification of the riddle. Is he an entrepreneur, farmer, philosopher, poet or dreamer?
天意 The Will of Heaven (poem superimposed on The Selden Map by D. Carlton Rossi) The NCP Rectangle is at the top of the larger rectangle.
Illustration of the NCP Rectangle
The NCP Rectangle was identified by John C. Didier in terms of its importance to ancient cultures. Two stars of the Big Dipper are found on the left corners of the rectangle and two stars of the Little Dipper are found on the right corners. At the top of the rectangle is shown 11 Draconis (Thuban) or the former pole star. It was actually paired with 10 Draconis as was the Dragon and Phoenix in both the celestial and terrestrial realms of Chinese civilization.
In both civilizations it might be speculated that there was a duality between the numbers one and four. These numbers may have represented birth and death respectively. One began the sequence and four ended it. In China, April 4th or the fourth day of the fourth month is still celebrated as Tomb Sweeping Day.
It might be guessed that the number five (or four plus one) represented rebirth. This may be suggested because both the Qilin and Sphinx may be regarded as composed of five parts that were reassembled. In the case of Egypt, the body of Osiris after dismemberment was reconstructed through a rebirth. The Qilin was said to have parts of maybe ox, horse, deer, carp and dragon. The earliest mention of the five elements “wuxing” can be found in the Shu Jing. The first model for the perfect government of a nation discusses the five elements.
Their beliefs of rebirth differed. If one wishes to oversimplify them it might be said that the soul or spirit would return from the celestial rectangle. For the Egyptians it seems to mean that the soul would return to a reassembled body. For the Chinese it seems to mean family worship of the deceased in the underworld and a kind of immortality when a son carried on the family name. Today, of course, officially speaking, if you intend to be reborn you must fill out a form under State Religious Affairs Bureau Order No. 5.
The NCP Rectangle was important for several reasons to these civilizations and others about five millenia ago.
a) the stars of the north rotated about a pivotal point which was 11 Draconis or the pole star which served as a guide
b) 11 Draconis (big) and 10 Draconis (little) were a binary pair
c) the pole stars were located at the same distance by way of the NCP between the Big and Little Dipper asterisms
d) the pole stars were located at the tail of the Dragon (specifically, they were in third place from the end of the spear)
e) at this time, both the Eqyptian and Chinese civilizations undertook the transition from a lunar to a solar calendar so that their time seemed to pivot around the pole stars ie. there was balance in the lunar-solar calendars
f) it may be that 11 Draconis was recognized as an equivalent of the Sun and 10 Draconis a counterpart of the Moon
g) both the Big and Little Dippers consisted of seven stars where geometric relations were recognized which included the pole stars
h) four star configurations were seen in both Dippers which appeared as geometric rectangles (cups)
i) the Big Dipper asterism was part of the Great Bear Constellation
John C. Didier, "In and Outside the Square: The Sky and the Power of Belief in Ancient China and the World, c. 4500 B.C. --AD. 200, Sino-Platonic Papers 192, September 2009.
The Qilin and Kongzi
“Master Sun, what is virtue?”
“Virtue is the headspring of eudaemonia and pleasure because the person is social and virtue is a social norm”. 孙大午, September 20, 2006, Xushui County, Hebei
(ie. it was D. Carlton Rossi who asked Master Sun the question)
The mystical Qilin 麒麟 was a celestial animal representing the west quadrant in Chinese mythology. Later, it appeared on rare occasions –particularly at the time of a solar eclipse-- in order to announce the birth or death of a sage or emperor. In China, it was second only to the dragon in its power. “The Qilin was believed to have sprung from the centre of the earth and was the first and most perfect of the 360 land creatures”. (1) This mystical animal gave gift of the art of writing from the time of Fu Hsi to the time of Kongzi. It was closely associated with Kongzi 孔子 since it manifested itself to his mother who carried him in her womb and to the sage himself.
Fu Hsi 伏羲 was the first of the five emperors during the golden age of antiquity. It was this emperor that saw a Yellow dragon-horse. “A native commentary on one of the Classics, written in the second century BCE describes the dragon-horse as the vital spirit of heaven and earth fused together.” (2) The dragon-horse may have been a kind of Qilin or even a tortoise that emerged from the Luo He which is a tributary of the Huang He. This was around the year 2852 BCE. In that year, there was an eclipse of the sun on April 23rd according to modern retrocalculations. (3)
On the animal’s coat, Fu Hsi saw markings. The emperor perceived those symbols as a written language. (4) According to legend, this was the origin of Chinese calligraphy. Tradition though mainly credits Fu Hsi with the discovery of the trigrams and invention of knotted cord records which led to written script.
Mythology also attributes the invention of the Qin (lyre) to Fu Hsi who wished to harmonize mind-heart with the universe. By the late Zhou period it played an important role in ritual music. Its seven strings were tuned to the five pitches of the natural pentatonic scale.
In the year 2697 BCE, there was a solar eclipse. This may be the oldest preserved account of a solar eclipse. A Qilin was spotted in the hall of Huangdi 皇帝 (Yellow Emperor) at this time. Qilins were seen in the park during the 20th year of the emperor. Legend says that a Qilin took the emperor to the land of the dead. (5)
The Yellow Divine Ancestor was credited with the invention of the calendar in the 61st year of his reign. The first historical record of the 60 day cycle began on March 8, 2637 BCE. This year was designated as year one of the Chinese calendar. The calendar was based on precise astronomical observations of the longitude of the Sun and phases of the Moon.
It was said that a partial eclipse of the sun heralded the forthcoming birth of Kongzi. The sage was born on the 20th day after the eclipse of the sun. This took place in the 10th month of 552 BCE, or the 27th of the 8th moon as worked out today. (6) The Julian date based on Oppolzer’s system was August 20th, 551. There was also an earlier eclipse in the 9th month of 552. It is no wonder that two azure dragons came from the sky to his mother’s house on the night when Confucius was born. (7)
Kongzi himself recorded thirty-seven eclipses of the sun between 720 and 481 in the Chun Qiu 春秋. The eclipses of 709, 601 and 549 were total. Of course, he primarily recorded eclipses as seen from his own vassal state of Lu in Shandong Province (lat. 35” 40’N, 117 E).
Apparently, another rarity in terms of astronomical phenomenon coincided roughly with the birth of Kongzi. This was a coming into conjunction of the major planets. "This had happenened previously at the founding of the Xia Dynasty. While the five century interval between Confucius and the Duke of Zhou was noted it was not not normally linked to the motion of the planets, perhaps because Confucius’ invention of philosophy provided a substitute for literal representation of the movements of the heavenly bodies”. (8)
There were several conjunctions of major planets “wandering stars” in the years 552 and 551 BCE according to Dr. John Harper at Wychwood Observatory. In March 552, there was a conjunction of Mars and Jupiter. In February of 551, Jupiter was in conjunction with Venus rather near to the sun. Finally, in June 551, there was a conjunction between Mars and Jupiter west of the sun and visible in the morning sky. (9) Conjunctions involving the planet Jupiter may have been important to the ancestors of the Zhou and possibly to the Xia and Shang before them. (10) Of course, the moon would align on a monthly basis with each planet throughout this period of time.
Han astronomy asserted that the ultimate conjunction took place at time zero. This was before the cycle of Heaven, Earth and Man were set in motion. It involved the five planets, Sun and Moon. (11)
It was Kongzi who revised the Shu Ching 書 經 which the Chinese consider their most ancient of books. In paragraphs 3 to 8 of the first section, the Emperor Yao gives instructions to his astronomers, under the designations of He and Ho. These instructions are probably the earliest relating to astronomy on record in China. For example, the emperor directs them to receive the rising Sun with due respect. (12)
One of the classics of the Ru Jia “School of the Learned” is the Lun Yu : 論語 or 论语 or The Analects. In a famous quotation, Kongzi said that “One who rules through the power of virtue 德 might be compared to the Pole Star, which simply remains in its place while receiving the homage of the myriad lesser stars. (13)
According to Edward Kaplan, “Kongzi began the process of turning “de” 德 into a metaphor. In his hands de came to be used in the sense of “virtue” as we now use that term—meaning moral goodness—but without losing just yet its magical power”. (14)
It is appropriate here to consult a modern Confucian philosopher regarding the definition of virtue 德. A question was posed to Sun Dawu 孙大午 who is Head Master of the Dawu High School in Xushui County, Hebei. “Master Sun, what is virtue?” “Virtue is the headspring of eudaemonia and pleasure because the person is social and virtue is a social norm”.
Ursa Major or the Great Bear 小熊座 is a circumpolar group of stars. One part of the configuration or seven stars is pictured as the tail of the Great Bear. The two stars known by the Chinese names of Twinkling Brilliance 搖光 and Assistant 輔 point to Polaris “Tsze-wei” or the North Star. This is the location of the Emperor’s Seat 帝座 .
The star constellation Beidou 北斗 is referred to on oracle bones as dou 斗. The 甲骨文字典 explains dou as "疑用為星名,即北斗,夕至翌日祭之.", probably the name of a star (constellation), namely Beidou, from the evening to the next day sacrifices are made to it”. (15)
The star called Lingxing 棂星 is found in the Great Bear constellation. According to legend, the star represents talent. When emperors offered sacrifices to heaven, the sacrifices were offered firstly to Lingxing 棂星. (16) They also offered sacrifices to Confucius. The fact that the southernmost gate at the Temple of Confucius is named Lingxing suggests that Confucius is a star from heaven. (17)
Kongzi also edited an official collection of poetry of the Zhou Dynasty that constitute the Shih Ching 詩經 (Book of Odes). Some of the 311 poems had astronomical themes or references. One poem begins with the following lines: “The Milky Way in Heaven shines on all brightly. The Weaving-Lady labors there, beside the River …”.
The Weaving- Lady (She-niu or Zhinu) is found in the constellation called Lyre 天琴座. She is the brightest star called Vega and the Chinese refer to as 織女. About 10,000 years from now, the earth’s North axis will point at Vega due to a motion called precession. (18)
A fabulous creature called a Qilin represents rui (serenity and prosperity). Its origin is described in the Huainanzi 淮南子
that was compiled around 140 BCE. Hairy Heifer gave birth to Responsive Dragon that gave birth to Establish Horse that gave birth to Qilin. (19)
There are four spiritual creatures known as Si Ling 四霛/四灵 in Chinese mythology. In the mist of pre-history, they are found in the four quadrants that represent directions and seasons. The four celestial animals are the Qing-long, Feng-huang, Ch’i-lin and Gui-xian. The Qing-long 青龍 or dragon (east) is a bringer of good fortune and symbol of the emperor’s power. The Feng-huang 鳳凰 or phoenix (south) is a propitious sign.. The Ch’i-lin 麒麟 (west) represents benevolence and harmony. The Gui-xian 玄武 or tortoise (north) symbolizes longevity and happiness.
It appears that the perception of the Qilin underwent a change over time, but it is difficult to trace the exact development. Originally, there may have been only three celestial emblems. The earliest bronze mirrors show the Qinglong, Feng-huang and Ch’i-lin on the reverse side. (20). The Qilin then may have joined a group of four that included the Qinglong 青龍, Feng-huang 鳳凰 and the Gui-xian 玄武. Finally, the Qilin may have spiritually harmonized the five elements represented by Qing-long 青龍 yellow dragon, Zhuque 朱雀 red sparrow, cauldron 鼎, Baihu 白虎 white tiger and Black tortoise 玄武 (some later mystical texts refer to the Xuan Wu 玄武 or Black Warrior).
The Qilin became associated with the number five. The Qilin radiated five colours. They correspond to the basic elements; namely, wood (green), fire (red), earth (yellow), metal (white) and water (black). The system of five elements (Wu Xing) and classifying things by five was already evident in the Tao Te Ching 老子道徳經 and the Shu Ching 書 經,
In astronomical terms, the colours are associated with the five planets. They are Jupiter “Soui-sing”, Mars “Ying-houo”, Saturn T'ien-sing” or Genie of the Pivot “Tchou-niou-tchi-chin”, Venus “Ying-sing” and Mercury “Chin-sing”. In the heavens, the colours also correspond to the heavenly dragon (east), phoenix (south), cauldron (centre), tiger (west) and tortoise (north).
There are also five different types of Qilin. Each has a correspondingly different color.
3. Golden (most popular)
5. Dark or Black
Indeed, the Qilin is a combination of five animals. It has the face of a dragon, the body of a deer, the mane of a lion, the tail of an ox and the hooves of a horse. In a sense, the Qilin symbolizes the harmonization of these disparate elements, colors and parts.
The spiral horn of the Qilin faces backwards. This indicates its peaceful intentions. Its horn may be a kind of fertility symbol because it represents the wish for a son. It is the male Qilin that has a horn. Its horn may also symbolize an eclipse of the sun because the horn is the same shape as the crescent of the sun. The gender of the Qilin is both male and female as indicated by the Chinese name 麒麟 which is a combination of the two characters chi (male) and lin (female).
The Qilin appears on special occasions to announce the imminent birth of a sage or ruler. It is believed that Confucius’ mother saw a Qilin. This was prior to the birth of her son. It presented a jade tablet to Ching-tsae that proclaimed all the great things that her son would accomplish. Furthermore, it declared that he would be a King without a throne.
One may easily dismiss the story about his mother's long gestation period as mere hyperbole. It was said that it lasted twice the normal time. However, a simple explanation may suffice to account for this belief.
The length of the gestation period roughly matches the Greater One-Horned Asian Rhinoceros. The gestation period of Rhinoceros unicornus lasts between 15-18 months. To some degree, the rhinoceros resembles the fabled unicorn with its horn. In fact, one of the five types of Chinese unicorns was called the liniu (hsi-niu) which is usually translated as "rhinoceros". The other four were named the Qilin, the Xie Chai, (often called the Xie Zhi), the Bai Ze (Pai Tsê), the Xie Niu and the Ki-Lin. (21)
Today, this rare rhinoceros is an endangered species. There may be only 2400 in existence. Its habitat may extend to southern China. Unscrupulous poachers shoot to kill this beautiful animal for its horn which is used in Traditional Chinese Medicine.
The long human gestation period of Kongzi is not unique among the ancient Chinese. It is said not only that Lao Tze's gestation period was 81 years, but that he gave birth to himself and was born an old man. Does the number 81 suggest that he was 81 when he died and/or that it took 81 years to write his philosophy and/or that the length of the Tao Te Ching is 81 verses?
The facial appearance of Kongzi is singular. His face was homely; although, a pleasant smile diverted attention from his looks. There were several warts on his cheeks. Furthermore, there was a large bump on his forehead. In a metaphorical sense, his looks may suggest that of a Qilin.
It is written in the Lun Yu 論語 that Tsze-chang asked Kongzi about perfect virtue. Kongzi replied as follows:
"To be able to practice five things everywhere under heaven constitutes perfect virtue." He begged to ask what they were, and was told, "Gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness, and kindness” (22)
The appearance of a Qilin may also announce the death of a ruler or sage. A dead Qilin was identified by Kongzi in his 70th year. He immediately recognized the creature and cried: "It is a Ch'i lin. The Ch'i lin, benevolent beast, appears and dies. My Tao is exhausted". (23)
As a magical master of naming, he also correctly identified the source of the giant bone of a dinosaur. The bone was uncovered by a landslide at Kuaiji. (24) Was the account of the naming of the Qilin inspired in part by the earlier discovery of this giant dinosaur bone and its identification?
After Kongzi had sighted the dead Qilin, he completed his compilation of the Spring and Autumn Annals of the Zhou Dynasty or Chun Qiu 春秋. However, it may be that he wrote a final poem on the theme of the Qilin.
In the age of Tang and Yu the Unicorn
and the Phoenix walked abroad.
Now when it is not their time they come
And what do they seek?
The Unicorn, the Unicorn, my heart is sad. (24)
Kongzi lived for seventy-two years. He had seventy-two excellent students who mastered the six arts. It also so happens that the number 72 has astrological significance. "If the sun is watched on the vernal equinox every year for a period of 72 years, the Zodiacal sign that aligns with the rising Sun has shifted one degree". (25)
In order for the sign to complete a full circle, it would require 72 years times 360 (degrees) equals 25,920 years. This number represents the period of the luni-solar precession or what is known as the Great Year. Plato believed that the perfect harmonius number was 25,920.
It should be noted though that precession of the equinoxes was discovered in China at a later date. It is attributed to Yu Xi in 320 CE. He found a value of about 72 arc seconds per year or two times the value found by Hipparchus. (26) However, "astronomers as early as the Han era noted that the winter solstice shifted with respect to lunar lodges". (27) "Even then, though, they did not recognize it (precession) as a continuous phenomenon, and it was called an "annual difference". (28)
Music was one of the arts that Kongzi mastered. He played the seven string lyre called the ch'in while he compiled the Book of Odes. Also, his sixth classic was called The Classic of Music or 乐经 Yue Jing. It was Kongzi's view that wholesome music was conducive to harmony within the individual and order within the state.
In the Li Ji 礼记 (Book of Rites), Kongzi expounded that each of the five notes of the pentatonic scale or C, D, E, G and A stood for a cosmic element. The five notes are Gong (Kong, Kung), Shang, Jiao, Zhi and Yu. They represent respectively the ruler, ministers, people, world affairs and 10,000 things. Harmony will prevail in the land if the notes are clear.
According to Kongzi, the physical structure of the Qin related to the cosmos to which it resonated. The top surface was rounded like the heavens. The underside was flat like the earth. The space was the emptiness of the Dao. The seven strings represented societal strata.
The ancient Chinese believed that the Primal Sound was called Kung or Huang Chung. While this sound is inaudible, it is present everywhere. The Kung corresponds to the western modern pitch of F. For the ancient Chinese, the alignment with the divine prime tone was the emperor's most important task". (30)
In Hans Cousto's The Cosmic Octave Tuning Forks , the author relates the Kung to the frequency of the Platonic Year. He calculates the note of F in Western Equal Temperament pitch which is found in the 48th octave with a frequency of 344.12 HZ. In the 47th octave it is 172.06 HZ. (31) In addition, Thomas Vaczy Hightower notes that the Chinese continued the cycle of fifths up to 25,524 notes with basic intervals of 0.0021174 savarts. This cycle is very near to that of the precession of the equinoxes or the Pythagorean great year, which is of 25,920 solar years. (32)
A bamboo rod tuned to the Kung was used by Ling Lun (who was a minister of Huangdi) to discover twelve tones that were made by taking two-thirds of each successive tone. In their 2:3 proportions as "fifths" the seven notes appear as F, C, G, D, A, E and B. (33) The twelve tones could be subdivided into 12 lesser Tones associated with the twelve Zodiacal regions.
According to Hightower, the introduction of the factor of five brings us to the harmonic modal scale. (34) He lists the intervals as the harmonic major sixth (5/3), the harmonic major third (5/4), the minor third (6/5), the major half tone (16/15), the minor half (25/24) and the syntonic comma. In this music expert's opinion, the number 5 harmonizes the music while the number 7 may transport it to heavenly regions. Is it any wonder that at Kongzi's birth music floated from heaven and five immortals descended sedately from the clouds?
It seems that Kongzi knew that his death was imminent. It is interesting to note that there were two eclipses recorded prior to his birth in the year 552 BCE and another eclipse in the year 481 (two years prior to his death at the age of 72). In both years, a Qilin was sighted. It was probably the same Qilin since they live for a thousand years. Or was it that his mother saw a male Qilin (Sun) and Kongzi saw a dead female Qilin (Moon) and metaphorically himself as the last sage?
1. "Unicorn Legends: The Chinese Unicorn"
2. John Bruno Hare, Sacred Texts, Chapter Four, The Divine Spirit of the Waters, 2006
3. John Harper, "Ask John Harper", Wychwood Observatory September 6, 2006
4. Andrew Bennett, "The Phoenix in Earliest Chinese History", Seminar at Okanagan Centre, Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, January 25, 2005
Source: The Chinese Classics, Part III, The Annals of the Bamboo Books, p.108.
6. Edward Harper Parker, Ancient China Simplified, Chapter V, Evidences of Eclipses,
7. The Divine Spirit of the Waters, Chapter Four
8. Edward Kaplan, Confucius: The Last Sage and First Political Philosopher, Washington State University: 1989
9. John Harper, "Ask John Harper", Wychwood Observatory September 2, 2006
10. Edward Kaplan, The Confucian Myth Cycle On the Formation of the Chinese State
12. John Williams, Observations of Comets from B.C. 611 to AD 1640, Digital Library of India, extracted from the Chinese Annals, introduction ix, London: 1871.
13. Kongzi 孔子, Lun Yu, The Analects 2:1
14. Edward Kaplan, Confucius: The Last Sage and First Political Philosopher
15. Harmen Mesker, "The Shen Sacrifice at Qi Shan"
18. Starry Skies, "Constellation Lyre"
19. Roel Sterckx, Animal Classification in Ancient China, EASTM23 (2005): 26-53, Di Xing, Huainanzi, translated in Major (1993), pp. 208-209.
20. Derek Walters, Chinese Mythology: An Encyclopedia of Myth and Legend.
21. Chinese Unicorns
22. Confucius, The Analects, Section Four, Part 16
23. "Unicorn Legends: The Chinese Unicorn",
24. Michael Nylan, Endnotes: The Five Confucian Classics, Chapter 6, The Spring and Summer Annals, p. 298, GY5:73 (Lun Yu B)
http://yalepress.yale.edu/upbooks/pdf//nylan6notes.pdf (p. 22 of 25)
25. "Unicorn Legends: The Chinese Unicorn"
26. Spiralling Evolution, Chapter 10
27. Observations, p.13
http:://arxiv.astro-ph/9902030v2 2 March/99
28. Other Ancient Astronomy,
29. Chapteer 2, Three Streams, Two Approaches to Musuc.
30. John B. Henderson, Cosmology and Concepts of Nature in Traditional China
31, 32, 34. Thomas Vaczy Hightower, The Creation of Musical Scales, part II
Thomas Vaczy Hightower, The Tone Zodiac
The Platonic Year of the Earth
33. Music-- A Divine Art
THEOSOPHY, Vol. 42, No. 4, February, 1954 (Pages 175-179)
据说是一次日食预示着孔子的出生。在日食后的第20天孔子出生了。如今计算出来就是发生在公元前552年10月份或者是8月27日的事。而从另外一个历法 系统推算出来是公元前551年8月20日。在公元前552年9月早些的时侯也发生了一次日食。毫无疑问，在孔子出生的那天晚上，两条蓝色的龙从天空中来到 孔子母亲的房间里。
根据Dr. John Harper的Wychwood（无毛树木）的观察，在公元前552年和公元前551年有过几次五大行星的会合。公元前552年3月，火星和木星会合。公 元前551年2月，木星与离太阳更紧的金星回合。最后，公元前551年6月，在早晨可以看见火星与木星在太阳西部会合。
这些会合，包括木星，可能对周朝的祖先、夏商朝的祖先或者更早的祖先是重要的 。 当然，在此期间，月亮会在每月有规律地和每一个行星在一条直线上。
Edward Kaplan 认为，是孔子开始了将“德”转为象征的过程。是他，“德”在被用作“道德”之意时，不仅具有品行端正之意，而且没有失去它的魔力。
传说中的麒麟象征着瑞（平和与繁荣）最早见于公元前140年前的《淮南子》。毛茸茸的小母牛赋予敏感的龙生命，敏感的龙赋予 神马 生命 ， 神马 又赋予了麒麟生命。
在天文学术语里，这些颜色是与木星 火星 土星 金星 和水星 五大行星联系在一起的。在天上，这些颜色也相当于龙（东），凤凰（南），鼎（中心），虎（西）和乌龟（北）。
中国古人认为最初的声音叫做Huang Chun .但是这种声音是听不见的，而它又处处存在。这种声音相当于现在西方的F音调。对中国古人而言，与神圣的音调结盟是皇帝的最重要的任务。
在Hans Cousto的/The Cosmic Octave Tuning Forks/,作者把Huang Chung与柏拉图年的频率想联系起来了。作者计算了F音符在第48个八读音阶里的频率是344。12赫兹，在第47个八度音阶里是172。06赫兹。另 外，Thomas Vaczy Hightower指出中国人继续the cycle of fifths up to 25,524 notes with basic intervals of 0.0021174 savarts.。这个周期非常接近于Pythagorean大年的周期。
中国古代的一个宰相叫做Ling Lun用竹器发出了声音Kung，同时他发现了12音阶通过发出Kung里面的2/3的音阶。这个比例2/3作为七音节里面的第五个音阶（分别是：F, C, G, D, A, E， B）这12音节与黄道带联系起来可以分成更细化12音阶。
根据Hightower所言，5的引进把我们带到了一个新的模式标准。他例出了第六个大调的距离是5/3，第三个大调是5/4，第三个小调是6 /5，半大调是16/15，半小调是25/24以及共振音阶。根据这个音乐专家的观点，音阶5协调着音乐，而音阶7使它更加完美。难怪当孔子出生的时候， 音乐从天而降，五阶音乐从云层中倾泻到人间。
无论如何，孔子是指导他的死期将至了，令人感觉有趣的是在公元前552年他出世以前有一次日食，在公元前481年（孔子72岁逝世前两年）又第二 次日食。而在这两年里，一只麒麟出现了，也许是同一只麒麟，因为他们生活了一千年。难道是他母亲看见了一只雄麒麟（代表太阳），孔子看见了一只死麒麟（代 表月亮），就把自己看作最后的圣人吗？
D. Carlton Rossi
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